European National Regulatory Authorities in the Energy area
The first European countries moved to liberalise their electricity and gas markets in the early 1990s. Austria followed suit in 2001 (electricity) and 2002 (gas). For competition to emerge market participants need clear rules of the game. As the regulator, E-Control is responsible for drawing up and enforcing these rules.
The regulator must strengthen competition and ensure that this does not compromise security of supply and sustainability. To act even-handedly in the interests of all market participants, regulators must be politically and financially independent.
CREG is the Belgian Federal Commission for Electricity and Gas Regulation. It is an autonomous organisation granted with legal personality, set up by the Electricity and Gas Laws.
CREG acts completely independently from governments, the energy industry and other stakeholders in accordance with European Union Law. CREG is nevertheless accountable to Parliament, where it presents its annual General Policy Note and budget proposal.
The aim of this note is to provide the information necessary to understand the European energy market and to know it’s responsible for the implementation and harmonization of EU Directives, Regulations and any other European official act.
National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) have a key role to play in ensuring that each European country meets its targets for energy markets and implement all EU regulatory policy.
It is known that National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) can impose sanctions on operators that fail to comply with the requirements of the regulatory framework or that do not implement its decisions.
The key role of a National Regulatory Authority, is to be active and to act in the interest of consumers, not political one.
The State Energy Regulatory Commission was established with a Decree of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria No 181 of 10 Sep 1999, based on art.11, para.2 of the Energy and Energy Efficiency Act (EEFA).
The Energy Act (promulgated in SG, issue 107 of 9 Dec 2003) was amended by the Regulation of Water Supply and Sewerage Services Act (promulgated in SG, issue 18 of 22 Feb 2005, RWSSA) and the Commission was transformed into State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission.
The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (HERA) has been founded as an autonomous, independent and non-profit public institution based on the Act on the Regulation of Energy Activities (“Official Gazette”, No. 177/04 and 76/07), in order to establish and implement regulation of energy activities.
The founder of HERA is the Republic of Croatia and the founding rights are exercised by the Government of the Republic of Croatia. HERA is responsible for its work to the Croatian Parliament.
The Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority (CERA) has been established in 2003 in accordance with European Union directives.
Is the National Independent Regulatory Authority for Energy and based on the responsibilities and the powers given by the law oversees and regulates the market for electricity and gas, ensure effective and fair competition, protect the interests of consumers, ensure safety, quality , competence, continuity, reliability in energy supply, as well as encouraging the use of RES.
CERA, as an independent public authority is available to any citizen who requests their help and contribution to matters within its competence.
The Energy Regulatory Office (“ERO”, “the Office”) was set up on 1 January 2001 under Act No. 458/2000 of 28 November 2000, on the Conditions of Business and State Administration in Energy Industries and Changes to Certain Laws (the Energy Act) as amended, as an administrative authority responsible for regulation in the energy sector.
The Energy Regulatory Office is based in Jihlava and it also has offices in Prague and Ostrava. The ERO is managed by the Chairperson who is, under Section 17b (2) of the Energy Act, appointed by the President of the Czech Republic upon the government´s proposal for a term of six years.
|The Danish Energy Regulatory Authority (DERA) is independent of the government. The tasks of DERA are stipulated in the supply acts for electricity, natural gas and heat, and pursuant to these acts DERA must:
The energy acts are to a large extent framework legislation, meaning that in many cases DERA has wide powers to interpret implementation of them in cases where DERA is the authority.
|Danish Energy Regulatory Authority (DERA)
Carl Jacobsens Vej 35
Tel: +45 41 71 54 00
|Estonia||Government of Republic Regulation No 197 of 30 December 2010 “Grant of Permission to Enter into Specialisation Agreements Which Restrict or May Restrict Free Competition (group exceptions) (RT I, 04.01.2011,11); Government of Republic Regulation No 60 of 27 May 2010 “Grant of Permission to Enter into Vertical Agreements Which Restrict or May Restrict Free Competition (group exceptions) (RT I 2010, 23, 112); Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications Regulation No 68 of 17 July 2006 “Guidelines for Calculation of Turnover of Parties to Concentration” (RTL 2006, 59, 1061).||Estonian Competition Authority – Energy Regulatory Dept (ECA)
Auna str. 6
Tel: +372 667 2400
Fax: +372 667 2401
|Finland||The Energy Market Authority began operating under the name of The Electricity Market Authority for the Electricity Market Act came into force on 1 June 1995. Electricity Market changed its name to Energy Market Authority on 1 August 2000. At the same time expanded its functions to include oversight of the natural gas market.
After the Emissions Trading Act entered into force in 2004 imposed work even task as emissions trading authority. The data increased further in early 2011, when work began administering the subsidy system for electricity production from renewable energy sources.
|Energiavirasto – The Energy Authority (EV)
Tel: +358 10 60 5000
Fax: +358 9 62 21 911
|CRE is an independent administrative authority created by the law of 10 February 2000. CRE regulates the energy sector in France.
The law requires members and staff of the commission to act independently and impartially, proscribing any instruction from the government or third parties. It also imposes obligatory confidentiality.
CRE is organised into two independent bodies (a Board composed of five members and the committee for dispute settlement and sanctions, consisting of four members) that use transparent procedures for the development of their decisions (task group, public consultations, hearings).
|Commission de Régulation de l’Energie (CRE)
15, rue Pasquier
75379 Paris Cedex 02
Tel: +33 1 44 50 41 00
Fax:+33 1 44 50 41 11
|Germany||The Bundesnetzagentur (Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railway) is a separate higher federal authority within the scope of business of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, and has its headquarters in Bonn. On 13 July 2005, the Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Post, which superseded the Federal Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (BMPT) and the Federal Office for Post and Telecommunications (BAPT), was renamed the Bundesnetzagentur. It also acts as the root certification authority under the Electronic Signatures Act.||Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Posts and Railway (Bundesnetzagentur – BNetzA)
Tel: +49 228 14 0
Fax: +49 228 14 8872
|The Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE) is an independent administrative authority, which enjoys, by the provisions of the law establishing it, financial and administrative independence. RAE was established on the basis of the provisions of L. 2773/1999, which was issued within the framework of the harmonisation of the Hellenic Law to the provisions of Directive 96/92/EC for the liberalization of the electricity market.
The financial independence of RAE, which is an essential condition in order to preserve the Authority’s independence, was effectively ensured by the provisions of L. 2837/2000.
|Regulatory Authority for Energy (PAE / RAE)
Tel: +30 210 372 74 00
Fax: +30 210 3255460
|Hungary||The Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority (HEA) is the regulatory body of the energy and public utility market, supervising the national economy’s sectors of strategic importance.
HEA, as an independent regulatory authority entrusted with provision making powers was established under Act XXII of 2013 as the successor of the Hungarian Energy Office (HEO) that was set up under Act XLI of 1994 on Gas Supply.
|Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority (MEKH)
Bajcsy-Zsilinszky út 52.
Tel: +36 1 4597701
Fax: +36 1 4597702
|The CER’s primary economic responsibilities in energy are to regulate the Irish electricity and natural gas sectors. This covers electricity generation, electricity and gas networks, and electricity and gas supply activities. As part of its role, the CER jointly regulates the all-island wholesale Single Electricity Market (SEM) with its counterpart in Northern Ireland, the Utility Regulator. The SEM is governed by a decision-making body known as the SEM Committee, consisting of the CER, the Utility Regulator and an independent member.||Commission for Energy Regulation (CER)
Belgard Square North, Tallaght
Tel: +353 1 4000 800
Fax: +353 1 4000 850
|Italy||The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity Gas and Water is the independent regulatory body of the energy markets and the integrated water services. It was established by law 14th November 1995, n.481 with the purpose to protect the interests of users and consumers, promote competition and ensure efficient, cost-effective and profitable nationwide services with satisfactory quality levels in the electricity and gas sectors. With law 22nd December 2011, n. 214, new regulatory competences in the integrated water services sector were attributed to the Authority, while Legislative decree 4th July 2014, n. 102, assigned new tasks in the district heating and cooling sector.||Autorita per l’energia elettrica il gas ed il sistema idrico (AEEGSI)
5 Piazza Cavour
Tel: +39 02 65 56 52 01
Fax: +39 02 65 56 52 78
|The Public Utilities Commission (PUC) or the Regulator is institutionally and functionally independent, full-fledged, autonomous body governed by public law which carries out regulation of public services in energy, electronic communications, post, municipal waste management and water management sectors in accordance with the law “On Regulators of Public Utilities” and special legal acts of the regulated sectors.|| Public Utilities Commission (PUC)
Unijas iela 45
Tel: +371 7097200
Fax: +371 7097277
|In its activity the Commission abides by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, the international treaties of the Republic of Lithuania, the legal acts of the European Union, the Law on Energy of the Republic of Lithuania (Official Gazette, 2002, No 56-2224; 2011, No 91-4319), the Law on Electricity of the Republic of Lithuania (Official Gazette, 2000, No 66-1984; 2012, No 17-752), the Law on Natural Gas of the Republic of Lithuania (Official Gazette, 2000, No 89-2743; 2011, No 87-4186), and more.||Valstybinė kainų ir energetikos kontrolės komisija / National Control Commission for Prices and Energy (NCC)
Verkių st. 25 C
Tel/Fax: +370 5 2135270
|Luxembourg||The ILT had to extend its missions to the energy and postal services sectors and was replaced by the Luxemburg Institute for Regulation (ILR). The ILR was created to frame the opening of former state monopolies to competition. The Institute’s mission is to ensure that competition is real and fair and that all consumers have access to services on reasonable terms. The ILR is not a competition authority, which sanctions anti-competitive behavior, but must prevent abuse and create an environment with fair conditions for all actors.||Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation (ILR)
17, rue du Fossé
Tel: +352 28 228 228
Fax: +352 28 228 229
|His mission is to regulate and monitor the efficient production and use of water and energy to guarantee a safe, secure and sustainable service for the benefit and welfare of the consumer. A dynamic and fluid organisation, working for and with stakeholders for the sustainability and affordability of energy and water services.||Regulator for Energy and Water Services (REWS)
Millenia, 2nd floor
Aldo Moro Road
Tel: +356 21220619
Fax: +356 22955200
|The Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) is an independent regulator that champions the rights of consumers and businesses. ACM is charged with competition oversight, sector-specific regulation of several sectors, and enforcement of consumer protection laws. The ultimate goal is to create a level playing field , where all businesses play by the rules, and where well-informed consumers exercise their rights.
ACM sets additional rules for the telecommunications, postal services, and energy markets. This is because competition in these sectors does not naturally exist.
|Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM)
P.O. Box 16326 2500 BH The Hague
Visiting address: Zurichtoren
Muzenstraat 41, 2511 WB The Hague
Tel: +31 70 722 22 06
Fax: +31 70 722 23 55
|The Energy Law Act has been amended many times since 1997. As a consequence, the scope of regulator’s duties and tasks has been extended from year to year. The President of Energy Regulatory Office is a central body of state administration nominated on the basis of the Energy Law (The Energy Law Act of 10 April 1997; Journal of Law of 1997, No. 54 item 348, as amended), responsible for regulation in energy sector as well as promotion of competition. The President of ERO regulates activities of energy enterprises aiming to balance interests of energy companies and customers.||The Energy Regulatory Office of Poland (URE / ERO)
181 Jerozolimskie Avenue
Tel: +48 22 487 55 70
Fax: + 48 22 489 16 60
|The Regulatory Entity for Energy Services is the entity responsible for regulating the natural gas and electricity sectors.
ERSE is independent in the exercise of its functions, within the framework of the law, without prejudice to the guiding principles of energy policy set by the Government, in constitutional and legal terms, and of acts subject to ministerial approval in accordance with the law and its statutes.
| Energy Services Regulatory Authority (ERSE)
Rua Dom Cristóvão da Gamanº 1
Tel: +351 21 303 32 00
Fax: +351 21 303 32 01
|Regulatory authorities for both electricity and natural gas sectors were established in Romania (the electricity regulator ANRE in 1998 and the natural gas regulator ANRGN in 2000) with the mission to create and implement the appropriate regulatory system to ensure the proper functioning of the electricity and natural gas sector and markets. Therefore assuming the responsibility to monitor and implement energy efficiency measures and promote the use of renewable energy sources to the final consumer.||Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE)
Constantin Nacu Str., 3
020995 Bucharest 37
Tel: +40 21 311 22 44
Fax: +40 21 312 43 65
|The Regulatory Office for Network Industries, as a state authority in network industries with inexisting competition, ensures balance between the investors´ and consumers´ interests. In the meantime, the Office has to protect the interests of both groups of consumers and investors. It is obvious that an investor would not perform his business in this field without profit guarantees. Therefore, the Office has to create an environment appropriate for a businessman to invest, but not at the expense of consumers, or in other words, the prices have to be fair for both sides.||
Regulatory Office for Network Industries
Bajkalská 27, P.O.BOX 12, 820 07 Bratislava 27
tel.: +421-2-581 004 11
fax: +421-2-581 004 79
By joining the EU, Slovenia became part of the single market in the energy sector, and therefore had to establish a European comparable energy system. Thus, on the basis of EU directives and regulations, the liberalization of the energy market has been introduced, thereby enabling the development of competition between market participants through clearly defined rules. In accordance with the legislation, the Agency is established as a regulator of the Slovenian energy market and is thus responsible for the preparation and compliance of these rules.
The task of the regulator is to establish the conditions for developing competitiveness and ensuring its operation, taking into account the requirements for permanent, reliable and quality care. In order to act in the interest of all market participants, the regulator must be politically and financially independent, so the agency is not financed from the state budget, but from the network fee.
Energy Agency (AGEN)
Strossmayer Street 30
Tel: (02) 234 03 00
Fax: (02) 234 03 20
The National Commission for Markets and Competition (CNMC) is the body that promotes and defends the proper functioning of all markets in the interests of consumers and businesses.
It is a public body with its own legal personality. It is independent of the Government and is subject to parliamentary control. Entered into operation on October 7, 2013.
National Commission for Markets and Competition (CNMC)
Calle Alcalá 47
Tel: +34 91 432 96 00
Fax: +34 91 577 62 18
Energy Markets Inspectorate (EI) operations in brief.
Ei is a supervisory authority on behalf of the government and belonging to the Ministry of the Environment and Energy.
The agency has been in existence since 2008.
Approximately 100 employees. Most economists, lawyers or engineers
Headquarters in Eskilstuna and office meeting in Stockholm.
Energimarknadsinpektionen / Energy Markets Inspectorate (EI)
631 03 Eskilstuna
Visiting address: Kungsgatan 43
Tel: +46 16 16 27 00
Fax: +46 16 16 27 01
Key to how we work is our responsibility, subject to our Enforcement Guidelines, to carry out investigations into company behavior when we believe they may have breached a condition of their license, or have breached the requirements of consumer protection or competition legislation.
We have the power to require disclosure of information, and to impose fines and enforcement orders on companies where we find that a breach has occurred (apart from breaches of consumer law where penalties cannot be imposed).
Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem)
London SW1P 3GE
Tel: +44 207 901 70 00
Fax:+44 207 901 70 66
Membership in EEU EUROPA is open to anyone who has an interest in the field of wholesale energy market. You are encouraged to view our website for more information. If you are interested in joining, our membership section will provide answers and application form.
The role of EEU EUROPA is to stimulate and facilitate the cooperation among energy businesses, to monitor the implementation of European energy legislation and to facilitate and enhance cooperation between national and European authorities, Governments, European Union and wholesale energy market participants across Europe, in order to establish an efficient and transparent wholesale energy market, in line with European Union energy goals.
We facilitate debates among European regulators, Governments, national authorities, regulators, policy makers, producers, TSOs and any other wholesale energy market participants. We actively seek those who are interested in institutional cooperation, energy regulations and those who shape opinions and prepare for events which effect the energy industry.
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EEU EUROPA knows the importance of meeting the right people in the right environment. Our events are invitation only, but if you are interested in attending in person, please contact us at
Our interest and the interest of European Union is to have a fair competition in wholesale energy markets.